Constuction Story
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 When the people want to get to Galata from Beyoğlu, or vice versa, they should take Yüksekkaldırım road, which interconnects those places. But, because Yüksekkaldırım is too steep and neglected and unsuitability for pedestrians and transportation, the people walking here get easily tired.Year 1869 might be considered as a turning point in İstanbul’s public transportation. Because, in this year, concessions for three important aspects of public transportation were granted, which can be called 3 Ts, and their contracts were signed. These 3 Ts are: Train, Tram and Tünel. Their common connotation is that the acceleration and modernization in transportation in the world are applied also in İstanbul. Coincidence aside, granting these three concessions is an indication of the importance given to the modern transportation in those years. With the works started and commissioning new transportation vehicles, İstanbul’s visage has changed and such change affected the social life.

One of the said 3T, the Sirkeci Küçükçekmece train, which formed the suburb part of Rumeli railways, was put into the service in 1871. The second T of 3T, Tram, was put into service as a result of the construction works carried out between 1869 - 1872, between the districts such as Unkapanı-Ortaköy, Eminönü-Topkapı, Aksaray-Yedikule. Third T is Tünel. Tünel is Turkey’s first subway, as well as it is the second subway of the world. Railway, was born from the researches performed to reduce frictional resistance and to keep the vehicles on a certain path. As a result of the advancement of such researches, they began to be used in the modern sense, from the first half of 19th century. Such advancements in the railway systems are developed in parallel with the advancements in the steam machines. In particular,  as a result of the efforts of the British engineer George Stephenson in 1830, the first railway line in the modern sense was opened between Liverpool and Manchester.Railways are mainly used for long-distance journeys. As a result of the speeding up process of the public transportation in the cities, such developments were applied in the cities. In fact, railways have been applied to the cities in the form of trams. In addition, because installation of tram railways is quite difficult especially indense areas of the large cities, a new transportation form has emerged by installing rails to the tunnels opened under the ground and operating trains on such rails, which is called “metropolitan railways”, “metro” or “subway”. The first subway was built between Farrington Street and Bishop road in London and it was 6 kilometer long. In the first subway, which was put into service in 1863, the cars were pulled by a by a steam locomotive. 
A French engineer, Eugene-Henri  Gavand visited İstanbul in 1867. In his visit, he observed that large number of people walked between Galata and  Beyoğlu, which were two major centers of İstanbul. Galata was an important financial and commercial center, while 
Beyoğlu was a lively and attractive leisure destination. Galata accommodated Istanbul exchange, customs, business establishments in various fields, shops and warehouses. In addition to entertainment venues, Beyoğlu houses embassies, hotels and residences. Both centers harbor crowds. When the people wants to get to Galata from Beyoğlu, or vice versa, they should take Yüksekkaldırım road, which interconnects those places. But, because Yüksekkaldırım is too steep and neglected and unsuitability for pedestrians and transportation, the people walking here get easily tired.
 
 
According to Gavand, approximately 40.000 people walk between these lively centers. But Yüksekkaldırım  cannot handle such traffic. First of all, a considerable inclination of 24% exists. And the width of the street is only 6 meters. In some places, the width even drops to 4 meters. Walking in such conditions is quite difficult and tiring. When riding, there is a risk to fall. Because Gavand was an engineer, he thought a method to save the people from that inclination. The method Gavand found was: With an underground railway (Tünel), in the form of lift between Galata and Beyoğlu, the people and goods can be transported. Thus, an important convenience for the public would be introduced, and he would make money. It would be constructed to a point in Yenicami Street, as close as to Karaköy bridge. Beyoğlu station would be constructed right across from Galata Dervish Hall and next to Teke cemetery
 
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