Granting Tünel Concession
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When we consider the provisions of the contract and the specifications signed by Henri Gavand, it is clear that an exact build-operate-transfer model was applied. The provisions and conditions protect the rights of both parties, in some provisions, they are in favor of the state. For example, the state would not spend any money for the project. When the construction were disrupted, the construction would face criminal sanctions. Another very important provision in the contract is that the disputes between the parties would be settled by Council of State in accordance with article 34. The advantage here is. In such tenders, in the event of dispute, the settlement of the dispute is usually performed by an arbitrator, that would be accepted by both parties. But, it is unknown if this arbitrator would be fair or the outcome of the settlement. But, when the dispute is settled by Council of State, it is clear that the interests of the state would be taken into consideration. Therefore, by including such provisions, it seems that the government signed a preferable contract in this Galata Tüneli project. In addition, in Article 21 of the specifications, filter usage was mandatory, and this was an indicator of sensitivity to environmental cleanliness.

 
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