Commissioning Tunel And Some Properties

 Tünel opening ceremony was held on January 17, 1875. A great ceremony was held on the occasion. Many statesmen participated in the ceremony. On behalf of the company, İstanbul representative Baron de Foelekersahbm and General Manager William Albert were also participated in the ceremony. In addition, members of foreign embassies, well-known personalities in financial and commercial areas and a big crowd participated in the ceremony. However, absence of Gavand immediately stood out. He was the originator of the project and he almost performed the construction alone. It was understood that he resented to be stayed out when he would reap the benefits of his efforts.The opening ceremony started with transportation of the guests between Beyoğlu and Galata. The cars were designed as first and second class and illuminated. The train consisted of two cars. In the front car, there was a platform for carrying belongings, animals and carts in this car. On the occasion of the ceremony, the guests made speeches, and then they were disbanded.The next day, Tünel was presented to the service of the public on January 18, 1875. According to the time table, the train would operate from 07:00 to 21:00 and they would depart from both Beyoğlu and Galata stations at the same time. From 07:00 to 11:00 every 5 minutes, from 11:00 to 15:00 every 10 minutes, from 15:00 to 19:00 every 5 minutes and from 19:00 to 21:00 every 15 minutes a train would depart. The average trip duration was 2.5 minutes. The fees were as follows: First class one-way ticket was 2 kurus, return ticket 3 kurus, second class one-way ticket was 1 kurus and return ticket 1.5 kurus. A special 20 return ticket was 50 kurus for first class and 25 kurus for second class. Children under five would not be charged, the military personnel and officials would pay half the fee. In addition, for animals and carriages, a special tariff was provided.Tunnel attracted the attention of the people from the day it was opened. Within 14 days, from January 18 to January 31, transporting 75.000 passengers was an indication of public attention. The number of passengers would increase in time. 111 000 passengers in February and 127 000 passengers were transported in April. When the company reduced the ticket prices, the number of passengers reached to 225.000 in June.

Tünel, which connected two major centers, Galata and Beyoğlu, earned the distinction of being the world’s second subway. The length of Tünel is 555,80 meters, width is 6.70 meters and the height is 4.90 meters. The length of the railway inside is 626 meters. It was built as a double track railway. The profile of the railway is not flat. There is a light ramp at Galata side. The reason for this, cars to gain sufficient speed in order to overcome the next ramp. This image serves as a parabolic railway line. There is a 10-20 mm/meter slope at Galata side. This slope increases and reaches to 149 mm/meter. This slope remains constant until Tünel exit for 90 meters. Then, with a slight decrease in slope, it reaches to Beyoğlu station with 139 mm/meter. The railway is 1.15 meter above sea level at Galata station. The railway is 62.70 meter above sea level at Beyoğlu station. There are two reasons to build the railway in parabolic way. First, to ensure to have a thick earth between Tünel’s upper level and the houses on the ground, secondly, due to the high slope at Beyoğlu side, to ensure the cars, pulled by the ropes, to move without requiring the steam power.Cars operate on the same track, without changing lanes. Each train consists of two cars. The cars are pulled by flat cables, and because they operate on their own tracks, the possibility of an collusion does not exist. The only fear might be cable breakage. Therefore, a dual brake system was installed. The cars are driven by a fixed steam engine, located on Beyoğlu station. The total cost of Tünel is 4.125.554 francs.
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